Adams, a 20-year-old former pupil of St Peter's School in the city, marked a successful comeback from injury by coming off the bench to score in Gloucester's opening Guinness Premiership victory of the season against Bath.
In 2005, the powerful centre severely ruptured the cruciate ligaments in his knee that ruled him out for most of last season. Since his return Adams has made six Premiership appearances, following up his try against Bath with scores against Northampton, Worcester, and Leinster in the Heineken Cup.
"The club stood by me last year through a difficult period and I'm delighted to repay that faith by signing this new deal," Adams told www.gloucesterrugby.co.uk.
"It's a fantastic feeling to have re-signed - I think we are building something special at Gloucester and I want to play a central role in it.
"The environment is good and it's great that the coaching staff give the young players the opportunity to go out and perform."
Meanwhile, 19-year-old tighthead prop Jack Forster - in the second year of an Agriculture and Land Management degree at Hartpury College - burst onto the scene last season after making the move south from Sale Sharks.
Having already represented England at Under-16 and 18 level, Forster played a prominent role in Gloucester's late-season charge, culminating with a starting spot in the European Challenge Cup final.
"I'm determined to build on the foundations I have laid at the club," said Forster, who is now a member of the Intermediate National Academy.
"I have got tremendous people to learn from like Christian Califano and Carlos Nieto, and there is no better club to improve my game than at Gloucester.
"I am thrilled to have signed for another two years and want to continue to learn my trade and push for inclusion in the 1st XV."
Dean Ryan added: "We are looking to build a squad over the long-term that has as its heart young, talented English players, and for that reason we wanted to waste no time in re-signing these players.
"Both are fantastically gifted in their respective areas, they are willing to learn and can only become better in the future. I think it is fantastic news for Gloucester Rugby and shows our intent for the future."