The newly created position will have responsibility for all off field playing matters including player recruitment, contracts and strategic planning for the club's Academy and training facilities.
His appointment will allow recently appointed Head Coach Bryan Redpath to focus entirely on playing and coaching matters, supported by Carl Hogg, Denis Betts and Mark Cornwell.
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Gloucester Rugby Managing Director Ken Nottage confirmed that Burgess' appointment is a key one for the club.
"As a result of the review process that Chairman Tom Walkinshaw undertook at the end of last season, we identified the need to support Bryan Redpath in his new role as Head Coach with an individual who would take on a more strategic role and allow Bryan to focus on playing matters."
"Rob is obviously well known to us from his his previous spell at the club and we felt that he possessed the ideal skill set for the role we had in mind. We are very grateful to the RFU for allowing us to approach him and delighted that Rob will be part of the team once again."
Rob explained his reasons for returning to Kingsholm to the club website today:
"I've had a fantastic year at England working with some great people, but when the opportunity came up to talk with Gloucester following their restructuring over the summer, the new role instantly appealed to me."
"Bryan Redpath is somebody I respect enormously having worked alongside him previously, and we share a lot of common values about what it will take to drive Gloucester forward."
"Any successful team is based on the right environment that surrounds the players off the field, and our challenge here is to maximise resources and give the squad every chance of being competitive."
Burgess, 32, starts his new role today, splitting his time between Gloucester and the RFU until his successor with the England team is in post in the near future, at which point he will move over to Gloucester full time.