He started his career at Bath Rugby, then moved along the M4 to London Irish where his stay included a start in the 2008-9 Premiership Final, before his move to Newcastle.
As well as making well in excess of 100 Premiership appearances, he has also been capped at England Saxons level.
A renowned lineout expert, he will be a valuable addition to the Gloucester first team squad from next season according to Director of Rugby Nigel Davies.
"I'm delighted that James has agreed to join Gloucester. He's a proven Premiership performer and a very shrewd lineout operator.
"He's also very mobile for a big man, which will suit the way we try and play the game.
"He will also bring experience and leadership qualities to the squad, which will be valuable assets. I'm very much looking forward to him arriving for preseason."
Meanwhile, Hudson admitted that leaving Newcastle after four seasons had not been an easy decision to make, but that he's excited about the next step in his playing career.
"I've enjoyed my time hugely with the Falcons. They've been a massive part of my career, and I'm fully committed to playing my part in helping them regain their Premiership status before I leave.
"However, I felt that now was the time for a new challenge. I've always enjoyed playing at Kingsholm as an away player, it's a fabulous stadium with a passionate crowd.
"And talking to Nigel Davies, I was excited about his plans for the future for Gloucester and my potential role within that. It was something that I decided I definitely wanted to be part of.
"My priority now though is to finish what we've started at the Falcons and, hopefully, I'll be facing Newcastle as a Gloucester player in the Premiership next season."